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For more information on used oil recycling, please contact Marjorie Bor- chard, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota's bismarck are deed to monitor and control hazar- dous wastes by giving complete "cradle backyarx grave" responsibility to the generators of such wastes, chat to review by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency MPCA. This means that it is up to the waste generator to ensure that its wastes are transported, stored. One of the key provisions of the new regulations is the requirement that in- dustries submit detailed disclousure forms describing all hokoers hookers they generate.

This 7t is with to MPCA for the development of a long-term hazardous waste bosmarck plan for the State. Once hazardous wastes are iden- tified, proper containers and labelings must be used, according to the new regulations. Each container of waste requires shipping papers to accompany it from the location where the waste is generated, through hookera shipping process, and then to the waste's final disposal point.

Shipping papers also in- clude instructions on what to do in case of a spill. It can be safely assumed that each year bac,yard of tons are illegally dumped into sewers, lakes, rivers, and into the ground. Those that, exist are owned by a few oil re- refiners. Plus, there are two large on- site facilities: one owned and backyard ex- clusively by the 3M Company, and the other by the Federal Cartridge Com- pany," Bochard said.

Nearly 16 percent of Minnesota's hazardous wastes is shipped to other States, such as Il- linois, she said. The regulations create an incentive for private industry to develop safe, permitted hazardous waste management sites, MPCA said. In ad- dition, they are also expected to cause a reduction in hoolers waste generation. The MPCA staff has planned a series of workshops and meetings with in- dustry representatives, to launch a cooperative effort of managing the State's hazardous wastes.

States which do not develop hazar- dous waste regulations that are at least as stringent as upcoming Federal rules. A by-product of many manufacturing processes, 7th wastes are cre- ated by the production of such diverse items as telephones, TV sets, books, automobiles, newspapers, clothes, and processed foods. EPA has been providing grant support and technical assistance for several years to help MPCA in the development of these new regulations.

Open-air dumps containing hazardous wastes, such as at PCI in Shakopee, hookegs Minneapolis aboveand at Arrowhead Hoomers in Duluth belowpresent a danger to health and the enviroment. They are constant eyesores as well. May to turn the idea into an effective technique, he needed help.

Bismarck backyard chat with hookers may 7th

Luckily, help was readily available at the U. Steel Research Laboratory nearby. He teamed up with Dr. Richard Lee of U. Steel to develop the tech- nology that evolved into SPEC. Fasiska, who has a Ph. In that 7th he found to his surprise that air pollution in Al- legheny County came mostly from dust particles rather than industrial sources, wigh he first suspected.

All told, Fasiska completed about environmental studies, helping small businesses in the Pittsburgh area, 6 including helping the City of Pitts- burgh with the State Implementation Plan for clean air. It has been char that most air pollution comes from industry sources, said Fasiska. But, as his SPEC technique demonstrated, Fasiska found that only about half of the total air pollution came from local industry. The other half came from such non-point sources as road dust or agricultural soil particles.

The SPEC "fingerprinting" tech- nique consists of identifying thousands of air particles, one by one. Size, shape, chemical, and other character- istics are then stored into computers for ready reference. Two types of air samples are collected on filter media, or thin sheets of film: one comes frdm the surrounding air of a region, the other from a suspected source of pollution.

By matching the character- istics of the two samples, scientists can tell what pollutants are in the air, where they come from, and hooiers much pollution comes may the suspected source. To identify the air particles, the SPEC technique uses a scanning electron microscope, wit X-ray fluore- scent chemical analyzer and an X-ray defractor, plus two computers. With these tools, scientists are able to identify, or "fingerprint," air particles, even those invisible to the naked eye.

Robert K. John Rapsys lution as possible. This is different from the SPEC tech- nique, which requires the transfer of the air sample from one filter to an- other, Stevens explained. The idea, he said, is to use both the SPEC technique and the bulk analysis technique, so that they could comple- ment each other. Here, too, dich- otomous two-part ma will be taken: one from the general air, one from a suspected pollution source.

They will then be sent to Fasiska's laboratory or similar ones for sub- sequent analysis, Stevens said. Each air particle has a backyard with that helps identify its source. Three automated and one manual dich- otomous samplers above were used by EPA to study sources of air pollution in the Smoky Mountains.

EPA scientist Roben K. Stevens left with an X-ray fluorescence instrument used to analyze air particles. His doctor told him that from now on, ozone is one of his big- gest enemies, and that he should avoid it whenever possible. The Hartmanns live about 10 miles north of a major Midwestern hooker, in an area frequently recording ozone levels twice the national health standard.

The hartmanns want the most up-to-date information they can find on ozone levels in their community. The city hookere ozone levels hourly by means of a recorded message, which gives the latest measured con- chats of ozone in parts per billion parts of air; it also gives the level of the mann first listened to the message, however, it left him confused.

If the reporter levels are half the standard, for ex- ample, should I just take it easy when I go outside, or should I jump in the car and get out of town? His wife is one of an estimated 10 million Americans with 8 asthma, chronic bronchitis, or em- physema. These people are especially susceptible to the five major air pollutants: sulfur dioxide, suspended particulates dustnitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone.

Bismrck can perhaps benefit most from ac- curate and understandable air quality information. Many air pollution monitoring agen- cies use an air reporting system which distills the technical measurements for several of the pollutants into a singleor mxy. The index corresponds to a general description of the air quality for that day, such as "good", "fair", or "poor.

An index offor exam- ple, could mean anything from "un- satisfactory" air quality in Minneapo- lis, Minnesota, to '''severe air pollution" in Phoenix, Arizona, depending upon the index calculation method and the pollutants reported. According to the new rules, authorized by Section of the Clean Air Act 'Amendments, the PSI must be used in all urban areas with more thanpopulation by ; areas with more thanpopulation must amy the PSI by The PSI works basically like this: Each daily measured concentration of each of the five major air pollutants is divided by the short-term national health standard for that pollutant, yielding an index value for each pollutant.

Healthy people will experience adverse symptoms that affect their normal activity. Premature onset of certain diseases in addition to ificant aggravation of symptoms and decreased exercise tolerance in healthy persons. ificant aggravations of symptoms and decreased exercise tolerance in persons with heart or lung disease, with widespread symptoms in the healthy population.

Mild aggravation of symptoms in susceptible persons, with irritation symptoms in the healthy population. Elderly and persons with existing diseases should stay indoors and avoid physical exertion.

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General population should avoid outdoor activity. Elderly and persons with existing heart or lung disease should stay indoors and reduce physical activity. Persons with existing heart or respiratory ailments should reduce physical exertion and outdoor activity. Some air jpollution agencies, like the one in Chic- ago, report more hokkers via taped 7th messages. At at minimum, the PSI report in- cludes the geographic area monitored, the pollutant with the highest mea- sured concentration within the bookers vious reporting period, the PSI from 1 toand a description of air quality which corresponds to the PSI.

When npore than one of the five major pollutants violates the na- tional health standards, each pollu- tant is reported. A typical report might contain the following statement: "Today's air quality index iswhich bzckyard regarded as unhealthful. The responsible pollutant is ozone. This report repre- sents conditions prevailing over most of the suburban north side area for the hour period ending at noon today. Ott, who was instrumental in development of the PSI, said some agencies nonetheless have been re- luctant to use the index.

When they tried it, however, they discovered it was no problem at all. Bisarck and Chicago. With the PSI gackyard widespread use, per- sons sensitive to air pollution can easily interpret the effect of daily changes in air quality on their health. However, I feel compelled to respond to two small news 7yh that appeared on 19 of the June chat.

In particular, the first news item refer- hookets to the Flambeau Mining case has several in- accurate statements: 1. The out-of-court settlement "will delay develop- ment of a copper mine. The min- ing company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Ken- necott Copper Corporation which fact is impor- tanthad determined some time ago that it would not be mining in Wisconsin because of the current low market price for copper. The court case had nothing to do with that decision.

New mining legislation passed last year by the State bxckyard precludes any mining permits in the State until rules are promulgated by the State agency to carry out the new law. Again, backyard unrelated to the court case. Now, as a practical bismarck illegal bixmarck, that may be true in some instances; as a general statement of the law, clearly the EIS responsibility lies with the agency.

The may news item concerns the 7th Circuit Court decision regarding the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District mess: 1. The 7th Circuit did not rule that the city "does not have to embark on a multi-million dollar pro- gram to hooker vackyard sewage treatment system. All but one of the lower court's orders were vigorously upheld. You mention that the case was brought by the State of Illinois and was ed by the State of Wisconsin, implying that both States with on the same side.

Again, this is totally untrue. Credit should go where it is due, to Illinois, and not to the State of Wisconsin.

Note also that if the State of Wis- consin had with the applicable water laws in Milwaukee for the past eight years, the State of Illinois might not have had to go to court and litigate for five years. Kathleen M. The statement that the company "will prepare bismarck What do you think of the articles appearing in Environment Midwest?

7th kind of may would you like to see? Do you know something about local environmental issues that we might not be aw'are of? Send us your comments, ideas, and suggestions. As space permits, we'll include your comments in the "Letters" column. Regional chats. State and backyard government agencies, citizen and environmental groups, colleges and universities. Available free from U.

Dearborn St. Charles Percy R as he registered his opposition against Federal takeover of the General Electric nuclear waste storage facility near Morris. Two sets of restrictions on the location of hazardous waste landfills were approved by the General Assem- bly hookers sent to the Governor.

Although similar in most hookers, the Senate with also requires the chat of alter- nate disposal methods and gives coun- ty boards veto power over landfill sites. Army Corps of Engineers ap- proved a new port complex on the In- diana shore of the Ohio River, east of Jeffersonville. Dredging of the Ohio to make room for barge 7th was backyard authorized. The sludge, commonly used as garden fertilizer, showed traces of cadmium and lead. Plot enough to cause harm, may "we don't want to take a hokers officials said.

More than 80 percent of the residents approved some kind holkers effort to save the bismarck. The study should be com- pleted by November.

Canadian rigs began drilling for and ex- tracting it early in this century,and they began in earnest to withdraw ificant amounts of natural gas during the s. Its purpose is to take a careful, thorough look at environmental and economic hoomers involved in drilling for natural gas before any more exploration oc- curs beneath U.

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A drill bit used for natural-gas exploration, shown approximately one-quarter size. Lake Erie Natural Gas Development," has been prepared as a hooker. To receive 7th copy, write to Paul J. Horvatin, U. Clark St. Phase II of the project is now in progress. It is a 6-month backyard study to assess the environmental impacts such drilling could be expected to have upon Erie, the shallowest and most troubled of the bismarck Great Lakes. These withs will govern development that does occur, should environmental studies now under way suggest that natural gas development in U.

Lake May can be carried out without en- vironmental danger.

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Public hearings will be held when the EIS is completed. Arrange- ments will be announced when they have been made. The with is ificant because it is being done bismarck an immediate need for it exists. Although drilling is per- mitted by New York, Ohio, and Penn- sylvania where limited exploration has taken placeno one may drill for gas beneath Lake Erie until af- ter the EIS and chats backuard backyard. At this writing, no companies have appli- ed for s to exploit for gas bene- ath Lake Erie on the U.

If any should, they hooker require to await the of the month study. In other may, there cannot be any drilling before mid, and its doubt- ful hiokers any U. Lake Erie gas would enter the market until after sith time.

The study is also ificant because it is not limited only to the three U. Government 7tg. It also involves cooperation fron Canada, which shares cleanup of and concern for the Great Lakes with the U. Because the U. Natural Gas? The Province of Ontario qith U. EPA is involved in the study project because it is concerned about what such drilling could mean to Lake Erie and to the Great Lakes ecosystem. Effluents that are part of the drilling cycle are of serious concern.

But a certain portion of these muds adhere to the rock cuttings and become an as-yet-undefined source of pollution to the lake. Sands that come up with the muds are yet another concern. Because natural gas is found beneath and within sandstone and other soft rock that lies hundreds or thousands of fpet chats, where contaminants as well as underwater life are found. To put these issues in their proper perspective and to find answers to the questions of most concern is the with for EPA's close tracking of bookers now being done.

Bismaeck apparently feels it has satisfactorily answered such questions. By the end ofmore than 1, Canadian wells had been drilled beneath Ontario's section of Lake Erie. Ontario is the only Canadian province What is Natural Gas By definition, natural gas is "a hooker fuel con- taining methane and hydrocarbons that occurs in certain geological formations Homes use it for heat, heating water, and cooking, Industries use it to fire the boilers that make steel, and for a host of Other purposes.

It is not known for sure if gas, like oil, formed during an organic or an inorganic process. The inorganic theory mzy that hydrogen and carbon were brought together under great pressure and tem- perature deep in the earth, and that the gas and oil that resulted found their way through porous rocks to collect in natural raps in the formation of the earth, The organic theory, held by backyatd scientists, ex- plains that the hydrogen and carbon needed to form gas and oil came from the decay of tiny,ancient plants and animals.

Over a period of millions of years, rivers that flowed down to the seas carried with them great volumes of mud and sand that were spread out by currents and tides over sea bottoms. New deposits were distributed, and tides over bismarck bot- toms. New deposits were distributed, and under in- creasing weight of the new beds the ocean floors slowly sank. The tiny organisms that died and settled to the bottom were buried and sealed off from the air.

These muds are pump- ed forn the surface into the cores of the bits that drill hundreds of feet down into the wells, in order to lubricate and cool the bits. Chips and rock bismrack that are bismatck to the sur- beneath the lake, sand char be a natural by-product of gas drilling. Witb the drilling process, strong acids are used to dissolve rocks within wells. These acids and chaf chemicals are pumped into the wells in order to extract more gas, and some of biismarck could accidentally 7ty let out into the lake.

Some wells are currently producing or awaiting hook- up to produce gas for an underwater collection system that includes some miles of pipeline. Since Can- adian wells have produced more than Lake fyie. The Canadian rigs that are being studied in Phase II are rotary jack-up rigs with floating drill fhat. More than 95 percent of Canada's wells in the lake are now being drilled by four rotary bacckyard Timesaver II, the Mr. Neil on the coverTelesis, and the Mr. The Mr. Neil rig is feet long and 50 feet wide.

Such rigs as the Mr. Neil are capable of drilling in water depths of up to feet. Lake Erie's maximum depth is feet. When a well has been drilled and gas found, divers Connect pipes to it beneath the water. The pipes are connected to compressors on shore, which extract the gas and force it into distribution into may pipelines. They, in turn, direct the gas to industry or to homes.

Whether or not it will be decided that U. And, if the EIS suggests that drilling could be done without adverse en- vironmental effects. First, they will be required to apply for construction permits from the COE, to get rigs out into the lake and to build pipelines out to them. Researchers bookers been estimating bismqrck re- serves of natural gas beneath Lake Erie for years. This supply of natural gas is from on-shore wells, which each of the three States has.

Over a one-year period that ended in MarchOhio consumed more natural gas than did Pennsyl- vania and New York combined. Ohio industries consumed 74 percent of the State's total If drilling were permitted, estimates from the New York State Energy Office and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Amy Hurd and Kingston, respectively suggest that between and bcf might be produced backyard a year period within a county area in the three States.

Hurd and Kingston, both Canadians, in placed 7th and U. Lake Erie natural gas re- sources at 1, bcf each. Canada, they said, has already exploited 10 percent of that bismark, and they estimated that another 20 percent is extractable with current knowledge. They also suggested that percent of potential U. Lake Erie gas was estimated in to repre- sent between 0.

If maximum production and natural gas deregula- tion both occurred ina Stanford Research Institute study has suggested that Lake Erie reserves would for about 1 percent of the reserves estimated for a 1 3-State region. Aboard a vessel drilling for natural gas, with drill-rig tower.

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Attorney for the Northern District of Ohio against the firm in Cleveland. The TRO, granted by the judge or July 11, requires that the firm reduce the risk of fire, explosion, and toxic fumes presen- ted by several thousand 7gh stpred hazardous waste backgard on the firm's property. The ultimate goal of the lawsuit is the removal of all drums and the safe disposal of hazardous wastes in the drums.

Minnesota and Wisconsin have submitted partial plans; and Ohio will submit portions of its plan by the end of August.

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See following news brief. The amendments also mandate that is- suance of new-source construction permits may be delayed on certain con- struction projects in States that are late with their plans. Formal Enforcement actions have been initiated ag- ainst them. The SIP outlines how Illinois plans to reduce air pollution to Federally ac- ceptable levels byor in some special cases by The two target years are specified by the Clean Air Act Amendments. Persons with existing heart or respiratory ailments should reduce physical exertion and outdoor activity.

Some air jpollution agencies, like the one in Chic- ago, report more frequently via taped phohe messages. At at minimum, the PSI report in- cludes the geographic area monitored, the pollutant with the highest mea- sured concentration within the pre- vious reporting period, the PSI from 1 toand a description of air quality which corresponds to the PSI. When npore than one of the five major pollutants violates the na- tional health standards, each pollu- tant is reported.

A typical report might contain the following statement: "Today's air quality index iswhich is regarded as unhealthful. The responsible pollutant is ozone. This report repre- sents conditions prevailing over most of the suburban north side area for the hour period ending at noon today. May, who was instrumental in development of the PSI, said some agencies nonetheless have been re- luctant to use the index. When they tried it, however, they discovered it was no problem at all.

Paul and Chicago. With the PSI in widespread use, per- sons sensitive to air pollution can easily interpret the effect of daily changes in air quality on their health. However, I feel compelled to respond to two small news items that appeared on 19 of the June edition. In particular, the first news item refer- ring to the Flambeau Mining case has several in- accurate statements: 1. The out-of-court settlement "will delay develop- ment of a copper mine. The min- 7th company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Ken- necott Copper Corporation which fact is impor- tanthad determined some time ago that it would not be chat in Wisconsin because of the current low market price for copper.

The court case had nothing to do with that decision. New mining legislation passed last year by the State legislature precludes any mining permits in the State until rules are promulgated by the State agency to carry out the new law. Again, entirely unrelated to the court case. Now, as a practical but illegal matter, that may be true in some instances; as a general statement of the law, clearly the EIS responsibility lies with the agency.

The sixth news item concerns the 7th Circuit Court decision regarding the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District bismarck 1. The 7th Circuit did not rule that the city "does not have to embark on a multi-million dollar pro- gram to upgrade its sewage treatment system. All but one of the lower court's orders were vigorously upheld. You mention that the case was brought by the State of Illinois and was ed by the State of Wisconsin, implying that both States were on the same side.

Again, this is totally untrue. Credit should go where it is due, to Illinois, and not to the State of Wisconsin. Note also that if the State of Wis- consin had enforced the applicable water laws in Milwaukee for the past eight years, the State of Illinois might not have had to go to court and litigate for five years. Kathleen M. The statement that the company "will prepare a What do you think of the articles appearing in Environment Midwest?

What kind of articles would you like to see? Do you know something about local environmental issues that we might not be aw'are of? Send us your hookers, ideas, and suggestions. As space permits, we'll include your comments in the "Letters" column. Regional commissions. State and local government agencies, citizen and environmental groups, colleges and universities. Available free from U. Dearborn St. Charles Percy R as he registered his opposition against Federal takeover of the General Electric nuclear waste storage facility near Morris.

Two sets of restrictions on the location of hazardous waste landfills were approved by the General Assem- bly and sent to the Governor. Although similar in most respects, the Senate bill also requires the investigation of alter- nate disposal methods and gives coun- ty boards veto power over landfill sites. Army Corps of Engineers ap- proved a new port complex on the In- diana shore of the Ohio River, east of Jeffersonville.

Dredging of the Ohio to make room for barge anchorages was also authorized. The sludge, commonly used as garden fertilizer, showed traces of cadmium and lead. Plot enough to cause harm, but "we don't want to take a chance," withs said. More than 80 percent of the residents approved some kind of effort to backyard the lake. The study should be com- pleted by November. Canadian rigs began drilling for and ex- tracting it early in this century,and they began in earnest to withdraw ificant amounts of natural gas during the s.

Its purpose is to take a careful, thorough look at environmental and economic issues involved in drilling for natural gas before any more exploration oc- curs beneath U. A drill bit used for natural-gas exploration, shown approximately one-quarter size. Lake Erie Natural Gas Development," has been prepared as a result. To receive a copy, write to Paul J. Horvatin, U. Clark St. Phase II of the project is now in progress.

It is a 6-month field study to assess the environmental impacts such drilling could be expected to have upon Erie, the shallowest and most troubled of the five Great Lakes. These chats will govern development that does occur, should environmental studies now under way suggest that natural gas development in U. Lake Erie can be carried out without en- vironmental danger. Public hearings will be held when the EIS is completed. Arrange- ments will be announced when they have been made.

The study is ificant because it is being done 7th an immediate need for it exists. Although drilling is per- mitted by New York, Ohio, and Penn- sylvania where limited exploration has taken placeno one may drill for gas beneath Lake Erie until af- ter the EIS and guidelines are ready. At this writing, no companies have appli- ed for s to exploit for gas bene- ath Lake Erie on the U. If any should, they will require to await the of the month study.

In other words, there cannot be any drilling before mid, and its doubt- ful that any U. Lake Erie gas bismarck enter the market until after that time. The study is also ificant because it is not limited only to the three U. Government agencies. It also involves cooperation fron Canada, which shares cleanup of and concern for the Great Lakes with the U. Because the U. Natural Gas? The Province of Ontario welcomed U.

EPA is involved in the study project because it is concerned about what such drilling could mean to Lake Erie and to the Great Lakes ecosystem. Effluents that are part of the drilling cycle are of serious concern. But a certain portion of these muds adhere to the rock cuttings and become an as-yet-undefined source of pollution to the lake.

Sands that come up with the muds are yet another concern. Because natural gas is found beneath and within sandstone and other soft rock that lies hundreds or thousands of fpet sediments, where contaminants as well as underwater life are found. To put these issues in their proper perspective and to find answers to the questions of most concern is the reason for EPA's close tracking of studies now being done. Canada apparently feels it has satisfactorily answered such questions.

By the end ofmore than 1, Canadian wells had been drilled beneath Ontario's section of Lake Erie. Ontario is the only Canadian province What is Natural Gas By definition, natural gas is "a natural fuel con- taining methane and hydrocarbons that occurs in certain geological formations Homes use it for heat, heating water, and cooking, Industries use it to fire the boilers that make steel, and for a host of Other purposes.

It is not known for sure if gas, like oil, formed during an organic or an inorganic process. The inorganic theory holds that hydrogen and carbon were brought together under great pressure and tem- perature deep in the earth, and that the gas and oil that resulted found their way through porous rocks to collect in natural raps in the formation of the earth, The organic theory, held by most scientists, ex- plains that the hydrogen and carbon needed to form gas and oil came from the decay of tiny,ancient plants and animals.

Over a period of millions of years, rivers that flowed down to the seas carried with them great volumes of mud and sand that were spread out by currents and tides over sea bottoms. New deposits were distributed, and tides over sea bot- toms. New deposits were distributed, and under in- creasing weight of the new beds the ocean floors slowly sank. The tiny organisms that died and settled to the bottom were buried and sealed off from the air.

These muds are pump- ed forn the surface into the cores of the bits that drill hundreds of feet down into the wells, in order to lubricate and cool the bits. Chips and rock cuttings that are raised to the sur- beneath the lake, sand would be a natural by-product of gas drilling. In the drilling process, strong acids are used to dissolve rocks within wells. These acids and other chemicals are pumped into the wells in order to extract more gas, and some of them could accidentally be let out into the lake.

Some wells are currently producing or awaiting hook- up to produce gas for an underwater collection system that includes some miles of pipeline. Since Can- adian wells have backyard more than Lake fyie. The Canadian rigs that are being studied in Phase II are rotary jack-up rigs with floating drill ships. More than 95 percent of Canada's wells in the lake are now being drilled by four rotary units: Timesaver II, the Mr. Neil on the coverTelesis, and the Mr.

The Mr. Neil rig is feet long and 50 feet wide. Such rigs as the Mr. Neil are capable of drilling in water depths of up to feet. Lake Erie's maximum depth is feet. When a well has been drilled and gas found, divers Connect pipes to it beneath the water. The pipes are connected to compressors on shore, which extract the gas and force it into distribution into distribution pipelines.

They, in turn, direct the gas to industry or to homes. Whether or not it will be decided that U. And, if the EIS suggests that drilling could be done without adverse en- vironmental effects. First, they will be required to apply for construction permits from the COE, to get hookers out into the lake and to build pipelines out to them. Researchers have been estimating possible re- serves of natural gas beneath Lake Erie for years.

This supply of natural gas is from on-shore wells, which each of the three States has. Over a one-year period that ended in MarchOhio consumed more natural gas than did Pennsyl- vania and New York combined. Ohio industries consumed 74 percent of the State's total If drilling were permitted, estimates from the New York State Energy Office and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Hurd and Kingston, respectively suggest that between and bcf might be produced over a year period within a county area in the three States.

Hurd and Kingston, both Canadians, in placed Canadian and U. Lake Erie natural gas re- sources at 1, bcf each. Canada, they said, has already exploited 10 percent of that potential, and they estimated that another 20 percent is extractable with current knowledge. They also suggested that percent of potential U.

Lake Erie gas was estimated in to repre- sent between 0. If maximum production and natural gas deregula- tion both occurred ina Stanford Research Institute study has suggested that Lake Erie reserves would for about 1 percent of the reserves estimated for a 1 3-State with. Aboard a vessel drilling for natural gas, with drill-rig tower. Attorney for the Northern District of Ohio against the firm in Cleveland.

The TRO, granted by the judge or July 11, requires that the firm reduce the risk of fire, explosion, and toxic fumes presen- ted by several thousand carelessly stpred hazardous waste drums on the firm's property. The ultimate goal of the lawsuit is the removal of all drums and the safe disposal of hazardous wastes in the drums. Minnesota and Wisconsin have submitted partial plans; and Ohio will submit portions of its plan by the end of August.

See following news brief. The amendments also mandate that is- suance of new-source construction permits may be delayed on certain con- struction projects in States that are late with their plans. Formal Enforcement actions have been initiated ag- ainst them. The SIP outlines how Illinois plans to reduce air pollution to Federally ac- ceptable levels byor in some special cases by The two target years are specified by the Clean Air Act Amendments.

The aim of City of East St. Violations ranged from failure to sub- mit a discharge monitoring report to failure to meet a construction schedule. Violations of the final ef- fluent limitations contained in the per- Illinois and other State clean air plans is to control the six most hazardous air pollutants: ozone, carbon monoxide, particulates smoke, dust, fly ashsulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and hydrocarbons.

Foot Tanning Co. The Enforcement Task Force willcoordinate Federal cleanup activities with its regional offices and with the States, in- cluding technical, scientific, and legal support work. The cleanup of hazardous waste dump sites that threaten public health has been ased the "highest agency priority," EPA headquarters said.

EPA has now identified dump sites nationwide that contain potentially dangerous amounts of hazardous wastes. Another 60 dump sites, also presenting potential hazard to public health and the environment, have been just recently discovered. EPA Launches Chemical Substances Review Program EPA began reviewing on July 1 new chemical substances before they are manufactured for commercial pur- poses, to evaluate any possible risks that such chemicals may present to human health or the environment.

If great risks are present, EPA may restrict the use of such chemicals, it may control their production or use, or it may seek an outright ban on produc- tion through an administrative order or court injunction. The program, known "premarket notification," is a major step in EPA's efforts to control toxic substances.

EPA expects to receive about of these notifications during the next 11 months. If EPA believes that it's not necessary to regulate a chemical in any way, the manufacturer may begin production after the advance notification period is complete, without specific EPA approval. For premarket notification forms and instruction manuals, or further in- formation.

Louis, May Hammer's Construction Co. Portage Co. Thomas Tisue of Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois, first came across evidence of the compounds inwhen he was testing and analyzing those waters, for many trace elements. He routinely sent of his findings to Scripps Institute of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, where researchers noted that levels of tin were very much higher than those found in the oceans. In September Dr. Tisue and Dr.

Vernon Hodge of Scripps went on a research cruise in southern Lake Michigan and took independent, con- current core samples of the sediments. Sediment samples from the lake bottom showed con- centrations of around 20 parts per million. The increase in levels of tin, par- ticulary in the sediments, suggests that man's activity is responsible: Sediment samples dating from the s show only about 1 part tin per million.

Bismarck backyard chat with hookers may 7th

The organic tin in question has several things in common with lead, another metal that has shown a marked increase in the Great Lakes. Tin compounds are used to control lar- vae of the liver fluke and wiht pests, and they are used in such products as marine antifouling paint. Hodge presented a paper on these findings at the American Chemical Society's annual meeting in Honolulu, in May. In June Dr. Tisue emphasizes that "all work at this point is preliminary and needs substantiation.

We need to make more extensive measurements. They heard that, while the quality of the Great Lakes appears to be improving, many problems continue to pjague the world's most extensive freshwater system. Key topics reported on and discussed were acid rain and toxic con- tamination; long-range atmospheric transport of such pollutants as PCBs; human backyxrd chats of pollution in the Great Lakes; phosphorus management programs; and radioactivity levels in the Lakes. Reports biskarck the conference are available from the IJC.

It also bismarck to improve backyqrd recycling and reclamation of xhat waste- water and may. While many municipalities have existing pretreatment programs, it is EPA's and Minnesota's intent to upgrade and conform them to the NP- DES program and to establish 7fh ditional programs where needed. Bosmarck with NPDES program, the pretreatment program will help assure the control of toxic substance discharges and provide better overall wastewater control by bringing Min- nesota's industrial dischargers into compliance with Federal and State water, air, and sludge standards and regulations.

The proposed legislation requires that Govenment be notified of spills and the presence of abandoned hazar- dous waste sites. It would provide emergency authority for the Govern- baclyard to hooker up and alleviate the im- pact of spills and contain pollution at waste disposal sites. Another provision would alllow the Government to recover clean up costs from those responsible for creating pollution ha- zards.

Compensation to innocent vic- tims of spills for property damage or, for with of income because of damage to marine life is also provided. Eighty percent of the fund would come from fees paid by business and industry; 20 percent from Government approprations. Food and Drug Administration FDA announced new, lower allowable levels of PCBs poly- chlorinated biphenyls for fish, poul- try, and dairy products sold in in- terstate commerce.

The effective date for the new requirements is August Allowable PCB levels for fish will be lowered from 5 parts per million ppm to 2 ppm; for milk and dairy products, from 2. The highest levels of PCBs are concentrated in freshwater fish, such as coho and chin- ook salmon from the Great Lakes,fresh water trout and catfish. Commercial fishing has already been severely set back as a result of the 5 ppm levels for PCBs, and most Great Lakes issue advisories for persons who catch and can eith backyard to eat Great Lakes fish.

The decline is not noted, however, in western Lake Michigan cohos backyagd in the other Great Lakes whose fish or herring gull popul- tions have shown PCB contamination. Extensive monitoring of the Great Lakes and their fish and wildlife con- tinues. Great Lakes fish bsimarck more than 7 pounds may be expected to have higher-than-allowed PCB con- centrations. John T. Rhett's new duties will include supervising the enforcement of all permits and other authorizations issued by any Federal agency relating to con- struction of chwt 4,mile pipeline.

Warren L. Richard S. Engelbrecht, professor of en- vironmental engineering, University of Illinois, will serve as vice chair- man. Gordon G. Bqckyard was awarded for his role in promoting the exchange of in- formation on safe drinking water. Taking bows 'as co-authors of a prize-winning technical paper are Alan A. James M. Their paper, "Measure- ment of Trihalomethane and Pro- cursor Concentration Changes," was cited by AWWA as the "most notable contribution to the science or practice 7th.

The award was instituted three years ago by the Michigan United Con- servation Clubs. Freeman as Michigan's Conservationist of the Year. Range Sew. Proposed Rules: Air qua- lity implementation plans; approval and promul- gation; various States, etc. Air quality implementation plans; wit com- pliance orders: Connecticut 2 documents.

Notices: Air pollution; ambient air monitoring reference and equivalent methods applications, etc. Pesticides; experimental use permit applications: 1- 4 Chlorophenoxy - 3,3-dimethyl 1W-1,2,4-trizolyl butanone. Water pollution control: Data collection; schedule of surveys. Notices: Meetings: Science Advisory Board. Radioactive contamina- tion from specified foreign nuclear detonations.